Then
400

America’s Zouaves

As tensions escalated and the nation moved toward the outbreak of the US Civil War in 1861, a law student in Chicago formed the first American company inspired by a North African light infantry known as Zouaves that had won distinction in both Algeria and Crimea. Soon dozens of Zouave regiments mustered up and, from 1859 to the end of the war in 1865, Zouave soldiers were wildly popular in both the North and the South—mostly for their courage and elite training, but also for their fashionably colorful Algerian-style pantaloons, waistcoats and headgear.
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400

The Islamic Roots of the Modern Hospital

By the mid-ninth century, more than 30 bimaristans—centers for treating illness and injury—were working from the Arab Middle East to Persia in the east and Al-Andalus in the west. Dedicated to the empirical pursuit of wellness, their design, organization and goals were much the same as those of hospitals today.
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400

Malika VI: Sayyida Al-Hurra

When she governed the Moroccan coastal city of Tétouan, the Spanish accused her of organizing piracy, while at home she won respect from both Moroccans and post-1492 Andalusian émigrés. On land and sea, hers was a life charted by crisis.
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400

Rousseau's Turban

Late in his life, one of the most celebrated minds of the European Enlightenment, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, donned Turkish attire. It was a personal expression of the mobility between Western Europe and the Muslim world—and the new ideas these crossings engendered, which he articulated in writings that changed history.
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400

The Great Migration of the Bani Hilal

In the 10th century, herders fled drought in Arabia, but the sultan of Egypt used them against his rivals. Their story went viral—oral-folklore style—as Sirat Bani Hilal, or the Romance of the People of the Crescent Moon.
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  • Creatives
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400

Malika V: Nur Jahan

Wife and mother, businesswoman, fashion designer, real estate developer, garden plan-ner, philanthropist devoted to women, battle commander, tiger hunter: For the woman with a royal name meaning “Light of the World,” those were all part of Nur Jahan’s main job—running the Mughal empire.
 
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