Copyright and Permission

Texts of articles copyrighted by Aramco World, Saudi Aramco World or AramcoWorld may be reprinted, either in print or electronically, without specific prior permission from the publisher, provided the following three conditions are met:

1. The text must not be edited. Abridgement is permissible only if the abridged text has been previously approved by the editors and the credit states "Abridged from..."

2. The author, full article title and the magazine's correct name and issue date must appear in the credits.

3. Either a printed copy or, in the case of articles published electronically only, a link to the reprinted article must be provided to the editors at the address below.

Note: This general permission does not apply to articles or other material identified in the print edition or on this website as reprints or adaptations from other copyrighted sources, or to any other material identified in any way as being copyrighted by parties other than Saudi Aramco or Aramco Services Company.

Photographs and illustrations may be republished, reprinted or reproduced only with specific permission from AramcoWorld. Permission should be requested through the Saudi Aramco World Digital Image Archive (SAWDIA) if an image download will be required; otherwise requests can also be made using the Feedback link or by emailing [email protected].

Many of AramcoWorld's photographs can be accessed through the Saudi Aramco World Digital Image Archive (SAWDIA), where you can search for and order, without charge, images to which Aramco Services Company holds exclusive or partial copyright, subject to the rules of the site and publisher's approval of requests.



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