Copyright and Permission

Texts of articles copyrighted by AramcoWorld, Saudi Aramco World or Aramco World may be reprinted, either in print or electronically, without specific prior permission from the publisher, provided the following three conditions are met:

1. The text must not be edited. Abridgement is permissible only if the abridged text has been previously approved by the editors and the credit states "Abridged from ..."

2. The author, full article title and the magazine's correct name and issue date must appear in the credits.

3. Either a printed copy or, in the case of articles published electronically only, a link to the reprinted article must be provided to the editors at the address below.

Note: This general permission does not apply to articles or other material identified in the print edition or on this website as reprints or adaptations from other copyrighted sources, or to any other material identified in any way as being copyrighted by parties other than Aramco Services Company, Saudi Aramco or its enterprise affiliates.

Photographs and illustrations may be republished only with use-specific permission from AramcoWorld. If an image download is required, request permission and order the image through the AramcoWorld Digital Image Archive; otherwise requests can also be made using the Feedback link or by emailing, subject line, "Image request: [your name]." Please note that not all images that appear in AramcoWorld are available. Aramco Services Company does not charge a fee for approved image uses.



Stay up to date

Subscribe to our newsletter to receive the latest features, events, reviews, teaching aids and digital-only content. 

To take advantage of all features on this website, it is recommended that you allow all cookies.
Read more